The article Art history and medicine (Historia sztuki i medycyna) refers to selected themes from Medicine in art exhibition (Medycyna w sztuce) that was held at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Kraków (MOCAK) between 22 Apr and 22 Oct 2016. The author discusses issues related to medicine regarding the aspects connected with mechanisms enabling to create and perceive art. This reflection involves historical overview of the “medicine-oriented” art research. Equally significant is an attempt to explain, by tools connected with neuroaesthetics, why we are eager to look at such drastic images created by artists. The analysis is based on texts by David Freedberg, Vittorio Gallese, Antonio Damasio, Piotr Przybysz and others. The article also includes interpretations of the photoghaph Seated anatomical model by Zoe Leonard and Wilhelm Sasnal’s installation First aid kit (Apteczka).