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Ł. Kędziora, Art & eye-tracking. A practical guide for artists, art enthusiasts and researchers, Toruń 2020

In the guide you will find comprehensive information on how to analyse and interpret works of art using devices that follow and register eye movements. The publication is addressed to artists, art theorists and enthusiasts who would like to design eye-tracking experiments connected with perceiving all kinds of artistic activity. Although the tradition of conducting this type of research dates back over nearly one hundred years, so far no coherent study discussing technology, methodology, and analysis of eye-tracking experiment results with reference to art, has ever been provided.

The guide is divided into six complementary parts. The first one includes a general overview of the relations be- tween eye-tracking and the history of art. The second chapter explains various techniques of conducting research and offers specification of selected devices. In the third part you will learn about – crucial for eye-tracking – the most frequent ways of determining the pupil location, as well as some problems related to proper eye-tracker calibration process. The fourth part discusses factors essential for conducting experiments correctly, which include: procedures for selecting study participants, space, interface, and instructions. The next chapter presents various kinds of data we obtain from experiments. Chapter six includes detailed instructions/scenarios for conducting eye-tracking experiments with regard to different works of art.


  1. Eye-tracking in art
    What is eye-tracking? | Why art? | Research examples | Art and museum projects
  2. Equipment
    Various research techniques | Mobile and stationary | eye-trackers | Comparison of selected devices |
    Eye-tracker construction
  3. How eye-tracker works
    Structure of the eye | Tremor, fixations, saccades | What is bright pupil? | What is dark pupil? | Purkinje images | Calibration
  4. Method
    Difficult beginnings | Hypothesis | Space | Participants | Instruction
  5. Analysis
    Areas of interest | Metrics | Heat maps | Attention maps | Statistical analysis
  6. Research scenarios (step by step)
    Where to start? | Preparing the space | Conducting experiments
    Glossary / Basic terms explained